(7). Baker KM, Goetzel RZ, Pei X, Weiss AJ, Bowen J, Tabrizi MJ, et al. “Using a Return-On-Investment Estimation Model to Evaluate Outcomes From an Obesity Management Worksite Health Promotion Program,” J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50(9):981-990. http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2008/09000/Using_a_Return_On_Investment_Estimation_Model_to.1.aspx.
- A predictive ROI model was applied to an obesity management intervention to demonstrate the use of econometric modeling in establishing financial justification for worksite health promotion. Program components include telephonic health coaching sessions, a personal health improvement plan, exercise planning support, nutrition education, and web-based health trackers. Program outcomes included a decrease in 7 of 10 health risks and a $1.17 to $1.00 ROI.
- Keywords: ROI; obesity management; worksite; health promotion
(8).Goetzel RZ, Roemer EC, Pei X, Short ME, Tabrizi MJ, Wilson MG, et al. “Second-Year Results of an Obesity prevention Program at The Dow Chemical Company,” J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52(3):291-302.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2881578/.
- The study objective was to evaluate innovative, evidence-based approaches to organizational/supportive environmental interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of obesity among Dow employees after 2 years of implementation. All 12 worksites offered Dow’s standard health promotion and risk reduction programs throughout the study period and included the following: dissemination of health education materials; physical activity and weight management counseling; health assessments; online behavior change programs; reimbursement for participation in community-based weight management, tobacco cessation, or diabetes education programs; and preventive screening reimbursements. Moderate-intensity interventions included: environmental prompts that encourage employees to make healthy food choices and be physically active; point-of-choice messages to encourage healthy eating and physical activity (e.g., signs in front of stairwells, vending machines, cafeterias); modified vending machine items and cafeteria menus; creation of walking paths; online weight tracking program; pedometers; and employee recognition program. High-intensity interventions included all of the above plus elements designed to more directly influence organizational culture and leadership commitment such as setting health objectives as a component of management goals. Intervention participants maintained their weight and BMI, whereas control participants gained 1.3 pounds and increased their body mass index values by 0.2 over 2 years. Significant differences in blood pressure and cholesterol values were observed when comparing intervention employees with controls. Environmental interventions at the workplace can support weight management and risk reduction after 2 years.
- Keywords: obesity; worksite; weight management
(9). Hughes MC, Girolami TM, Cheadle AD, Harris JR, Patrick DL. “A Lifestyle-Based Weight Management Program Delivered to Employees: Examination of Health and Economic Outcomes,” J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49(11):1212-1217. http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2007/11000/A_Lifestyle_Based_Weight_Management_Program.8.aspx.
- The objective of this study was to examine the health and economic outcomes associated with a comprehensive weight management program directed to employees. This study is unique in that it reports not only a variety of short-term health outcomes, but also the pharmaceutical use and long-term weight maintenance results from an employer-sponsored weight management program implemented in three Fortune 500 companies. The intervention, consisting of a 26 or 52-week program, incorporated exercise, behavioral counseling, registered dieticians, certified diabetic educators, counselors and physicians. Data one-year post intervention was collected from 46 participants. Average body weight decreased 5.4% and average waist circumference decreased 7.2%. Minutes of exercise per week increased throughout the intervention from an average of 58 min/week at baseline to 236 min/week. At 1-year post-intervention, weight loss and BMI were maintained.
- Keywords: weight management; employees; Fortune 500; pharmaceutical; long-term weight maintenance
(10). Low D, Gramlich M, Engram BW. “Self-Paced Exercise Program for Office Workers: Impact on productivity and Health Outcomes,” AAOHN J. 2007;55(3):99-105. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17405586.
- The impact of a self-paced exercise program on productivity and health outcomes of 32 adult workers in a large federal office complex was investigated during 3 months. The self-paced intervention included walking as the sole form of exercise, weekly goal-setting, monthly workshops, and retention strategies (prizes awarded monthly for 5-pound weight loss, 3% decrease in body fat, or 5-point reduction in systolic or diastolic blood pressure). Positive health outcomes occurred in the form of lower blood pressure and weight loss. The weak research design, small sample size, and statistical analysis limit the conclusions to suggestive at best.
- Keywords: exercise program; office workers; productivity
(11). Meenan RT, Vogt TM, Williams AE, Stevens VJ, Albright CL, Nigg C. “Economic Evaluation of a Worksite Obesityprevention and Intervention Trial Among Hotel Workers in Hawaii,” J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52(Supplement 1):S8-S13.http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2010/01001/Economic_Evaluation_of_a_Worksite_Obesity.3.aspx.
- The study objective was an economic evaluation of Work, Weight, and Wellness (3W), a 2-year randomized trial of a weight loss program delivered through Hawaii hotel worksites. The program randomly assigned employees to either a minimal (Level 1) or an intensive (Level 2) intervention. Level 1 consisted of raising employees’ awareness of their weight and health habits following measurement of BMI and the health-relevant features of their work environment during assessments. Level 2 intervention components drew on a multicomponent lifestyle approach and included on-site weight management groups, and various environmental initiatives, and during the final intervention year, promotion of post-study intervention adoption or maintenance. After 2 years, obese and overweight employees at Level 2 hotels reduced both BMI and waist/height ratio compared to Level 1 employees. Control program cost $61/participant to implement over 24 months, intervention program cost $334/participant. Presenteeism improvement of 50% combined with baseline 10% productivity shortfall required to generate positive 24-month intervention net present value.
- Keywords: hotel employees; worksite; obesity prevention
(12). Olson R, Anger WK, Elliot DL, Wipfli B, Gray M. “A New Health Promotion Model for Lone Workers: Results of the Safety & Health Involvement For Truckers (SHIFT) Pilot Study,” J Occup Environ Med. 2009;51(11):1233-1246.http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2009/11000/A_New_Health_Promotion_Model_for_Lone_Workers_.1.aspx.
- The study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new health promotion model for lone workers. Several proven intervention tactics incorporated into the program included: weight loss competition, computer-based training, behavioral self-monitoring, and motivational interviewing. Objectively measured body weight reduced by 7.8 lbs, and survey measures showed significant reductions in dietary fat and sugar consumption. An objective measure of safe driving also showed significant improvement, and increases in exercise motivational stage and walking fitness approached significance. Clinical measures and strength measures were relatively stable, but scores on a 6-minute walking test approached significance.
- Keywords: lone workers; truck drivers; truckers; health promotion; safety;
(13). Pai C, Hagen SE, Bender J, Shoemaker D, Edington D. “Effect of Health Risk Appraisal Frequency on Change in Health Status,” J Occup Environ Med. 2009;51(4):429-434. http://www.umich.edu/~hmrc/tree/pdf/2009.pdf.
- This study examined the association between repeat participation in health risk appraisal and change in health status. The HRA contains more than 60 questions and includes questions about lifestyle behaviors, presence of several medical conditions, and use of preventive services. Taking an HRA more than once between 2002 and 2004 was associated with a desired change in health status (staying no change or getting better). Additionally, participation in wellness programs during the same time period was also positively associated with a desired change. These findings support the value of repeat HRA participation in maintaining or improving individual’s health status.
- Keywords: health risk appraisal; HRA; health status
(14). Pedersen MT, Blangsted AK, Andersen LL, Jørgensen MB, Hansen EA, Sjøgaard G. “The Effect of Worksite Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Capacity, Health and productivity: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial,” J Occup Environ Med. 2009;51(7):759-770.http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2009/07000/The_Effect_of_Worksite_Physical_Activity.2.aspx.
- The study objective was to investigate the effect of two contrasting physical activity worksite interventions vs. a reference intervention (REF) on various health outcomes. The 1-year intervention allowed participants 1 hr/wk during work hours for intervention activities—specific resistance training (SRT), all-round physical exercise (APE), and reference intervention (REF). The main finding was that the worksite physical activity interventions resulted in clinically relevant effects on musculoskeletal pain as well as systolic blood pressure at 1 year, and body fat percentage at 6 months, despite relatively small changes in physical capacity.
- Keywords: worksite; physical activity intervention; exercise; productivity
(15). Petersen R, Sill S, Lu C, Young J, Edington DW. “Effectiveness of Employee Internet-Based Weight Management Program,” J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50(2):163-171. http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2008/02000/Effectiveness_of_Employee_Internet_Based_Weight.9.aspx.
- The objective of the study was to evaluate an employee internet-based weight management program offered to a large employee population at International Business Machines (IBM). The goal of the interactive online weight management tool was to create lifelong habits that enable weight management. A 20% decrease in junk foods, a 12% decrease in the frequency of fast foods, a 12% decrease in pre-packaged foods, and a 3% increase in eating breakfast was seen. The percentage of participants in normal weight categories increased from 27 to 29.8%, the percentage of obese participants decreased from 35.9% to 34.2%, and the average weight decreased from 182.6 to 180.2 between enrollment and 6-month follow-up.
- Keywords: internet-based; weight management; large employee population; wellness
(16). Redmond MS, Kalina CM. “A Successful Occupational Health Nurse-Driven Health Promotion Program to Support Corporate Sustainability,” AAOHN J. 2009;57(12):507-514. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19928715.
- This article discusses a successful health promotion program developed and implemented by an occupational health nurse in support of a company’s sustainability effort—promoting the health and well-being of employees as well as adding value to the bottom line. Once health risks were identified, the nurse planned education programming to teach employees how to eliminate the risks to their health using both health education and behavior modification. The study demonstrated the positive affect a program can have on reducing both the direct and indirect costs associated with illness, injury, and Presenteeism.
- Keywords: light manufacturing worksite; health promotion; occupational health nurse; hypertension;Presenteeism
(17). Finkelstein E, Fiebelkorn C, Wang G. “The costs of obesity among full-time employees,” Am. J. Health Promot. 2005;20:45-51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16171161.
(18). Schulte PA, Wagner GR, Ostry A, Blanciforti LA, Cutlip RG, et al. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health.Am. J. Public Health. 2007;97:428-36. http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/97/3/428.